'until the getting' 391 We have already explored the possiblity that this Gwyn ap Nudd (see nn.444, 79 etc. Culhwch und Olwen. Cf. )', one of the 'substantive' names similar to those found in the latter part of the Court List. Bromwich and Evans (CO p.109) draw attention to the fact that Indeg was frequently alluded to as a paragon of beauty by the court poets and their late medieval successors (see TYP p.357, 412). 128Geraint son of Erbin. There is no leash in the world that can hold Drudwen the whelp of Graid son of Eri except a leash made from the beard of that man over there. Gwythyr also plays a central role in the Rescuing of the Ants episode (see text here). 472 Sef oed y swyd ef yn wastat ymdwyn peir Arthur a dodi tan y danaw lit. He was the father of Gwythyr (see below), a rather more significant figure in Culhwch ac Olwen. Otherwise unknown. 521 Arwyli Eil Gwydawc Gwyr. 477 Gwlad Y Haf 'Land of Summer'. Both Tegfan and Tegyr play no further role in Culhwch ac Olwen and are otherwise unknown in the extant Welsh tradition. 'between your two knees' 39 A dothyw hediw yma lit. ", "It will be easy to get that, boy" said his father to him. See p.### ff. The Tyrrehnian Sea would have crossed on the trade route which brought Phocaean red slipware to the British Isles in the decades around the early sixth century, a route which one might expect would have also carried pilgrims from the Insular West to Rome and the Eastern Mediterranean. Tëyrn (< Clt. 221 Gwydrut a Gwyden Astrus 'Gwyddrud and Gwydden the Cunning' astrus < Lat. And he sent messengers for his son, and he was brought to the Court. And every one that beholds the light, and every one that opens and shuts the eye, let them shew him respect, and serve him, some with gold-mounted drinking-horns, others with collops cooked and peppered, until food and drink can be prepared for him. 'Alder Carcass', perhaps 'Alder Swamp' or 'Alder Carr'. So Culhwch went to Arthur, his kinsman and his cousin To ask for aid in seeking fairest Olwen for his bride Arthur's knights they joined him: Kei, Bedwyr and Gawain With Menw the magician and Cynddylig as their guide And so they travelled onwards to the lands of Ysbaddaden Where they came upon his castle, and rode their steeds inside. GPC (p.626) lists two eighteenth-century Welsh citations. The gentle gold-torqued maidens of this island264 - beside Gwenhwyfar,265 chief lady of this Island, and Gwenhwyfach,266 her sister and Rathtien, daughter of Unig Clememyl,267 Celemon daughter of Cai,268 and Tangwen daughter of Gwair Dathar Weinidog,269 Gwen Alarch daughter of Cynwal Canhwch,270 Eurneid daughter of Clydno Eidin,271 Eneuog daughter of Bedwyr,272 Enrhydreg daughter of Tuduathar,273 Gwenwledyr daughter of Gwaredur Cyrfach,274 Eurdudfyl daughter of Triffyn,275 Eurolwyn daughter [of Gwddolwyn Gorr],276 Teleri daughter of Peul,277 Indeg daughter of Garwy Hir,278 Morfudd daughter of Urien Rheged,279 Gwenllian Deg,280 the magnanimous maiden, Creiddylad daughter of Llud Llaw Eraint,281 [the] maiden of greatest majesty [that] there was in the Three Realms of Britain and their Adjacent Islands282 - and over her Gwythyr son of Greidol and Gwyn son of Nudd fight each May Day, forever unto the Day of Judgement. It is a lighthearted tale that skillfully incorporates themes from mythology, folk literature, and history. 257 Kethtrwm Offeirad 'Cethdrwm the Priest'. MW bragawd = a drink made from fermented honey and ale. Then she said unto him, "I declare to thee, that it is thy destiny not to be suited with a wife until thou obtain Olwen, the daughter of Yspaddaden Penkawr." He stood over the giant,412 as if he was putting the sword in the scabbard. Guest translation; Jones & Jones translation. He was almost certainly a fairly significant mythological figure in his own right, with specific local associations in the Pembrokeshire area, perhaps deriving from an Irish tribal context (see p.### above). See Sarah Sheehan 'Giants, Boar-hunts, and Barbering: Masculinity in "Culhwch ac Olwen"' Arthuriana Vol.15 No.3 (Fall 20005) pp.3-25 136 Berth mab Kado. Spoke Cai "Let him keep companionship with me, and we will not be killed unless [we are killed] together. ", "Horses I will get and horsemen. Arthur said "Are the any of the wonders that we still haven't got? After they were told no, Bedwyr got up and seized the cauldron, putting it on the back of Hygwydd, Arthur's servant (he was a half-brother on his mother's side to Cacamwri, Arthur's servant). Nevertheless the boy was of gentle lineage, and cousin unto Arthur; and they put him out to nurse. Later on in the text he is described as 'the chief huntsman of Ireland', and killed during an engagement with the Twrch Trwyth. He will have another peculiarity: no-one suffers water or fire better than him.177 He will have another peculiarity: there will not be another retainer or steward like him. Ysbaddaden is represented in Culhwch ac Olwen as the Pencawr 'Chief Giant' - the leading figure among the monstrous/pagan elements of the island of Britain. c.f. The name Moro Oeruedawc 'Moro of the ?Cold Grave' is evocative but otherwise unknown, and has the appearance of a ghost-character derived from a corrupted form of Du Moroedd. Dogs were set loose on him from every side. 170 R: omitted 171 Gwystyl mab Nwython a Run mab Nwython a Lluydeu mab Nwython, a Gwydre mab Lluydeu o Wenabwy merch Kaw y uam. the River Nevern in North Pembrokeshire. 'under my hand is he'. ", "Though you may get that [...] A leash [made] from the beard of Dillus Farchog,387 as there is not [anything] which can hold the two whelps other than this.388 And no-one can [get any] use from it unless he is alive when it is pulled from his beard, and it being plucked with wooden tweezers. Spoke the queen: "O hag, tell me something thing,16 by God. Four clods would the hooves of his horse cut [from the turf], like four swallows in the air above his head: sometimes above him, sometimes below. Gware Gwallt Euryn. ", They set out on the sea towards Wales, and Arthur went with his hosts and his horses and his dogs in Prydwen, and caught a brief glimpse of them.481 Twrch Trwyth landed at Porth Clais in Dyfed.482 Arthur came over to Mynyw483 that night. Neither of these sons of Arthur's most famous retainers are known elsewhere, although Amren son of Bedwyr may be identical with the Hir Amren who is mentioned later on in the list, and who plays a part in the Cave of the Very Black Witch incident. 201 Ardyrchawc Prydein. In this case, it seems to denote a detachment sent with the specific aim of rounding up the Twrch Trwyth, and driving him down to the Severn. This offers a fascinating, if inconclusive, insight into the relationship between these two texts, and the fertile hetereoglossia that was occasionally responsible to new formations at the outer edges of the Arthurian complex. When I came here first, the great valley you see before you was a wooded glen, a race of men came to it and it was destroyed, and there grew another wood in it. Except for a craftsman who brings his craft, it will not be opened. And they conquered the king's lands. And he had another peculiarity,--so great was the heat of his nature, that, when it rained hardest, whatever he carried remained dry for a handbreadth above and a handbreadth below his hand; and when his companions were coldest, it was to them as fuel with which to light their fire. 367 Sims-Williams has suggested a Frankish derivation for this name (Og(i)er < Audagari), as with the Gwittard map Aed Brenhin Iwerdon found in the court list. The fact that his cattle are killed by the Twrch in the Daugledyf in what is now the uplands South Pembrokeshire suggests he may have originally been associated with this area. Kynyr Keinvarvawc (when he was told he had a son born he said to his wife, 'Damsel, if thy son be mine, his heart will be always cold, and there will be no warmth in his hands; and he will have another peculiarity, if he is my son he will always be stubborn; and he will have another peculiarity, when he carries a burden, whether it be large or small, no one will be able to see it, either before him or at his back; and he will have another peculiarity, no one will be able to resist fire and water so well as he will; and he will have another peculiarity, there will never be a servant or an officer equal. 275 Erduduyl merch Tryfffin. See p.### and n.### below for the significance of this name in relation to the dynastic politics of the Central Belt region in the sixth/seventh centuries. ", "I have. The names listed here seem to be formations based on the addition of this expressive suffix to the words for 'black' (Duach), 'stab' (Brathach) and 'strength' (Nerthach). Together with that you will get my strength and my support. 507 Glyn Ystu. As Bromwich and Evans note, there is a reference to Clust fab Clustfeiydd as well as Drem fab Dremhidydd (see n.173) in a late fourteenth-century poem by Gruffydd Llwyd, mocking the alert senses of a jealous husband. ... Waldo Williams’s own translation. 'Anwas the Winged One'. They came up to the outer wall of Gliui, "It is best we seek the two whelps of the bitch Rhymi, And so it was that Gwythyr son of Greidol. And he went with all those hosts over to Ireland, and there was great fear and trembling before him in Ireland. genealogy, property ownership etc. When they made a visit they left neither the fat nor the lean, neither the hot nor the cold, the sour nor the sweet, the fresh nor the salt, the boiled nor the raw.) Kulvanawyd occurs as a personal name in the poetry of Cynddelw in the late twelfth-century, and also Triad 80, where a certain Kulvanawyt Prydein is named as the father of Essyllt Fyngwen, one of the Three Faithless Wives of the Island of Britain (here identified with the Essyllt of the Trystan legend). 401 hyny uyd kaer uaen gymrwt a welasit. This figure appears in the anomalous Triad 1, and in certain other later texts which show signs of the influence of Culhwch ac Olwen. But one time I was going [about] seeking my food, over at Llyn Lliw,423 and when I came there I struck my claws into a salmon, thinking he could be my food for a long time, but he pulled me into the depths, so that it was [only] with difficulty that I was able to escape from him. 'Red-Eye Stallion' 158 Gwrbothu Hen. Jesus MS 111: Llyfr Coch Hergest. Bromwich and Evans (CO p.80) suggest a derivation from anyan 'nature, instinct' for Anynnawc (RB annyannawc). (Sol could stand all day upon one foot . I was there. ", "As much as I know I will tell. The patronymic may be related to Ebrew 'Hebrew', but as Bromwich and Evans point out (CO p.90) this is a late loan-word, not recorded elsewhere before the 13th century. 'the knife would be put in its sheath and across the torrent' 186 Teir ynys Prydein a'e Their Rac Ynys. Like the cauldron of the Head of Annwfn, the cauldron of Dyrnach the Giant 'will not boil the food of a coward'. The White Book omits this adverb 294 See n.256 above. Culhwch ac Olwen, even across the gap of the centuries, preserves much of the vitality of an oral performance. All the huntsmen went to hunt the pigs then, as far as Dyffryn Llychwr.509 And Grugyn Gwallt Eraint and Lwydog Gofyniad510 charged at them, and killed all the huntsmen so that not one of them escaped alive except one man. 1400, and a fragmented version in the White Book of Rhydderch, ca. 187 An example of the many curious anachronisms of the Arthurian court list invocation, which seems to include figures (e.g. The three servants of Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr, Arthur's chief porter, as previously introduced. 284 a honno a uu teir oes gvyr yn uyw lit. Note the repeated use of the 3rd pers. He may have originally been associated with the Severn Bore, and appears to have had local connections with Southeast Wales (Nant Teyrnon is the name of a valley a few miles north of Caerwent). The secondary meaning 'stipulate, demand' would be equally applicable here. Neither daughter or father are known elsewhere in the Welsh tradition. While Cyndelig is represented in the text as a guide in the sense of a tracker or explorer, the word can also mean an expert in socio-historical matters e.g. [G]wyllt is cognate with the Irish Geillt, both of which are used to describe a very specific form of trance-state associated both with prophetic inspiration and post-traumatic stress. "[the] head of a spear comes from its shaft, and it is that which draws blood from the wind and alights upon the shaft." ap Mynwyedig, although no individual of this name is known anywhere else in the medieval Welsh lexicon. Fleudwr Flam Wledig above). 390 nes kaffel lit. The epithet gouynynat looks like a scribal error for gouynnyat i.e. Otherwise unknown. No-one who has come to ask for that312 has gone [away] with their life.". A well-known West Country figure and the eponymous hero of Geraint ac Enid, one of the thirteenth century rhamantau that we will be examining in more detail in Volume II. Culhwch and Twrch Triath are thus situated in precisely the same social stratum - one of a number of parallels between them (see p.### below). Elidir Gyuarwydd,233 Ysgyrdaf and Ysgududd234 - two servants of Gwenhwyfar were they; as swift on their errand[s] were their feet as their minds. None was equal to him in swiftness throughout this Island except Arthur and Drych Ail Kibddar. 384 This motif of maternal separation, exile and return is highly characteristic of gods and heroes of all kinds. "378, "Though you may get that [...] There is no leash in the world that can hold him, except the leash of Cors Cant Ewin. Sims-Williams ('The Significance of the Irish Personal Names in Culhwch and Olwen' Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies (1982) p.607-610) has argued that the corruptions in these names all suggest a copying from manuscript sources by a scribe unfamiliar with the source traditions. A dark man, bigger than three men of this world, they could be seen coming from the caer. 512 Mynynd Amanw. Those afflicted with this condition are represented as avoiding human contact and seeking refuge in the wilderness in a semi-feral state. 123 Sberin mab Fflergant brenhin Llydaw. 'the tusk of White-Tusk Chief of Boars'. p.###). He wished to see the grave whereby14 he might take a wife. The name Gwyddno is reminisicent of the Guipno found in the HG 5 whom, as we have already suggested, appears to have represented the ousted branch of the Strathclyde dynasty which took refuge in a Pictish court community, where Gwyddno's son Neithon/Nechtan seems to have been born. 434 heb drossi dim am y gwynt lit. Sionedd Davies, Jones and Jones and Patrick Ford all translate as 'presently, soon', the meaning also offered by Bromwich and Evans. Clememyl's only daughter. This may have been a subversive addition by the scribe of R, if so we have a visible instance of the way in the Arthruian court list may have accumulated and mutated, and perhaps been subject to a variety of readings over the centuries of its transmission (see pp.### above). Arthur went over to the house of Tringad in Aber Cledyf, and asked him about it. Otherwise unknown. And Menw transformed into the form of a bird, and landed over his lair, and tried to snatch on of the treasures from him. 257-258). Uchdryd was a fairly common personal name in medieval Wales which occurs several times throughout the Court List. 106 Garwyli eil Gwythawc Gwyr a Gwythawc Gwyr e hun Neither father nor his son/heir Garwyli (see n.85 on the semantics of eil) are known elsewhere in the wider Welsh tradition. And then Arthur sang this englyn: From the beard of Dillus, the son of Efrei440, Had he been healthy, you would he would slay!441. The author seems to have thought Dinsol was located in the far North, even though name most likely also derives from a Cornish location (either the parish of Denzell near Padstow or St Michael's mount - CO p.57). "413, "It is best," said they "to seek Mabon son of Modron, and he will not be got until Eiddoel son of Aer, his kinsmen, is got first.". "26, [Off] went the boy on a light-grey headed steed: four winters [strong] with a well-knit fork; shell-hooved with a golden tubular bridle-bit in its mouth.27 A saddle of precious gold beneath him and two spears of sharpened silver in his hand. 259 Medyr mab Methredyd 'Aim son of Aimer'. Such ambiguity of allegiance - the inclusion of former or future enemies within this court list - is discussed in more detail on pp.### ff. And the blade of grass bent not beneath him, so light was his courser's tread as he journeyed towards the gate of Arthur's Palace. 41 If there any pregnant women in this court,42 their womb-loads will fail; those who are not pregnant among them their wombs will weigh down upon them so that they will never become pregnant from this day forth. And although he was one-handed, three warriors could not shed blood faster than he on the field of battle. ", "Will she come here if she is sent for? n.62 above on Caledfwlch. A certain Gurgust appears in HG 8, this time as the son of Coel Hen (and great-grandfather of Urien). The medieval Welsh derivation of the Romano-British god Maponus 'The Divine Son', whose mother Matrona 'The Divine Mother' was also evoked as a diety in her own right. "Leave him," said Cai "to eat his fill of the meat, and after that he will fall asleep.". In Welsh, the word seems to have developed the secondary meanings 'difficult, cunning, evil'. This alternation of the zoomorphic names for the promotory may have been the result of tribal geopolitical shifts in the region during the early Roman Age. And Arthur said to him, "Hast thou news from the gate? And then Llwydog over to Ystrad Yw,526 and there the men of Llydaw527 met with him, and there he killed Hir Peissog,528 king of Llydaw, and Llygadrudd Emys and Gwrfoddw529 - uncles of Arthur, brothers of his mother. And Arthur himself went to the hunt with the dog Cafall462 in his hand. The same word is also used to denote female genitalia. For the use of [g]oruc as an auxillary verb, see GMW p.160. ", "Though you may get that [...] Twrch Trwyth will not be hunted until you get. 322 Pa neges y dodych yma chwi lit. From then until today, I have been here. Spoke they "May you prosper,330 Ysbaddaden Bencawr, from God and from man.". 15 Doget Vrenhin Bromwich and Evans (CO p.49) note that this same name is added into the family tree of Cunedda and his sons by Thomas Wiliems of Trefriw, a sixteenth-century antiquarian from the Llanrwst area of Denbighshire. Cai had a power: as long as nine nights and nine days could he be without sleep. He is known elsewhere in the Welsh tradition, and appears in Triad 30 as leader of one of the faithless warbands, anachronously associated with the Battle of Camlann. "You for your part, where do you travel?" Translated by Lady Charlotte Guest The First Branch text refers this dynasty as the dyledogion 'The Entitled Ones of the Island'. Then she went to a mountain where there was a swineherd, keeping a herd of swine. 'When they supposed their being near to the caer' 301 R stretches out this apparent distortion of time and space over two more days: Ar eildyd ar trydyd dyd y kerdessant ac o vreid y doethant hyt yno 'Over a second and a third day they walked, and with difficulty did they get there'. But beneath the appearance of muddle and contradiction is the hint of a strategy to marginalise the king's son to the point of eliding his existence altogether. And thereupon he was routed from Cornwall and driven right in to the sea. The epithet Brosc also occurs in one of the Irish pedigrees of the Deisi tribe whose connections with the old house of Dyfed we have also noted. He also features as the main protagonist in the 13th century Romance bearing his name. And his courser cast up four sods with his four hoofs, like four swallows in the air, about his head, now above, now below. 355 Bannawc lit. 33 Huandaw < hy (affirmative particle, conveying aptness or capability) + andaw 'hearing', i.e. For Menw Teirgwaedd see n.108 above. "For my heart warms unto thee, and I know that thou art come of my blood. 195 Gweir Gwrhyd Enwir 'Gwair False Valour'. < nodi See n.68 above. 'seventh') listed here, nothing more is known. The apparent non-sequitur is, on one level, entirely characteristic of the 'dark' speech-patterns of the monstrous/pagan antagonists represented in this text (see p.###-### below).

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