", Chapter 8 "Ionic versus Covalent Bonding,", Table 2.7 "The First 10 Straight-Chain Alkanes", Table 2.8 "Some Common Acids That Do Not Contain Oxygen", information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. prefixes used in naming elements in covalent compounds. As discussed in Chapter 7 "The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends" and Chapter 8 "Ionic versus Covalent Bonding," they can be predicted from the locations of the component atoms in the periodic table. 9. Steps to Naming Covalent Compounds. Remember, ionic compounds are metal combined with a non-metal. Naming binary (two-element) covalent compounds is similar to naming simple ionic compounds. Rules for naming simple covalent compounds: 1. The only exception is binary compounds of oxygen with fluorine, which are named as oxygen fluorides. After mastering the material in Chapter 7 "The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends" and Chapter 8 "Ionic versus Covalent Bonding," one is able to predict the compositions and structures of compounds of this type with a high degree of accuracy. Romans numerals can be used but often fail to distinguish between some molecular compounds. Naming Covalent Compounds Solutions Write the formulas for the following covalent compounds: 1) antimony tribromide SbBr3 2) hexaboron silicide B6Si 3) chlorine dioxide ClO2 4) hydrogen iodide HI 5) iodine pentafluoride IF5 6) dinitrogen trioxide N2O3 7) ammonia NH3 8) phosphorus triiodide PI3 Write the names for the following covalent compounds: A system of numerical prefixes is used to specify the number of atoms in a molecule. Figure 2.14 The Structures of Some Covalent Inorganic Compounds and the Locations of the “Central Atoms” in the Periodic Table. Name the other non-metal by its elemental name and an -ide ending. The compositions and structures of covalent inorganic compounds are not random. To describe the composition of a chemical compound. The order of the elements in the name of BrF3, bromine trifluoride, is determined by the fact that bromine lies below fluorine in Group 17. These prefixes are used in front of each elemental name in a compound. Name the non-metal furthest to the left on the periodic table by its elemental name. Second, look at the subscript of each element to determine which prefix to use. A Molecule is any substance composed of two or more atoms COVALENTLY BONDED. Examples: Give the name of each compound using the covalent prefixes and a regular periodic table. For example, for CO the name will be carbon monoxide, and the final o of mono is dropped. In naming covalent compounds, each element in a covalent compounds needs a prefix to denote the number of atoms of that element. 3. google_ad_width = 468; Binary covalent compounds—that is, covalent compounds that contain only two elements—are named using a procedure similar to that used to name simple ionic compounds, but prefixes are added as needed to indicate the number of atoms of each kind.The procedure, diagrammed in Figure 6.1.1, uses the following steps: Change the ending of the second element to ide. As with ionic compounds, the system for naming covalent compounds enables chemists to write the molecular formula from the name and vice versa. 1. ” mono-” indicates one, “di-” indicates two, “tri-” is three, “tetra-” is four, “penta-” is five, and “hexa-” is six, “hepta-” is seven, “octo-” is eight, “nona-” is nine, and “deca” is ten. google_ad_client = "pub-0644478549845373"; First, identify the elements present. Missed the LibreFest? The following general formulas represent specific classes of hydrocarbons. If two or more elements are in the same group, start with the bottom element and work up. 2. In the covalent naming system, the prefixes indicate the quantity of the atom. Normally, no prefix is added to the first element’s name if there is only one atom of the first element in a molecule. Note: when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the "a" (or the "o") at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped; e.g., "nonaoxide" would be written as "nonoxide", and "monooxide" would be written as "monoxide". Example 1 – Name this compound: CO 2. Second element is named as an Anion (suffix "-ide") 3. 2. Prefixes derived from Greek stems are used to indicate the number of each type of atom in the formula unit (Table 2.6 "Prefixes for Indicating the Number of Atoms in Chemical Names"). If both elements are in the same group, the element closer to the bottom of the column is named first. eg. Binary compounds of the elements with oxygen are generally named as “element oxide,” with prefixes that indicate the number of atoms of each element per formula unit. The first element never uses the prefix mono-, but does use all others. Prefixes are used to show how many atoms of each element are present in the compound . The final o or a of a prefix is often dropped when the element begins with a vowel. Write the formula for each binary covalent compound. If you're unsure of yourself, you can review the nomenclature rules and prefixes for covalent compounds. If not, decide whether to use the common name or the systematic name. The following table lists the most common prefixes for binary covalent compounds. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. ; For example, for CO the name will be carbon monoxide, and the final o of mono is dropped. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. For example, CO is carbon monoxide. Prefixes are used in the names of binary compounds to indicate the number of atoms of each nonmetal present. Rule 1. The element with the lower group number is written first in the name; the element with the higher group number is written second in the name. In chemistry, a molecule is covalent when it is formed from bonds between nonmetals. 2. 11. The first element is named first, using the elements name. Please note that ionic compounds (Type I & II binary compound names) never use prefixes to specify how many times an element is present. Is the compound NaHCO3 a hydrocarbon? The prefixes are as follows. Covalent inorganic compounds are named by a procedure similar to that used for ionic compounds, using prefixes to indicate the numbers of atoms in the molecular formula. Covalent inorganic compounds are named using a procedure similar to that used for ionic compounds, whereas hydrocarbons use a system based on the number of bonds between carbon atoms. Title: Naming Covalent Compounds 1 Naming Covalent Compounds. Second element is named as an Anion (suffix "-ide"), 3. Write the name for both elements. For example, CO is carbon monoxide. Ok, let’s use our covalent naming rule to name some covalent compounds. Benzene (C6H6) is an organic compound, and KCl is an ionic compound. 3. (The reasons for this convention will become clear in, Sulfur has no prefix, which means that each molecule has only one sulfur atom. Column is named first other study tools from here, it 's only the final o of is. Are never dropped all others can an Inorganic compound be classified as a hydrocarbon prefixes and a regular periodic is. Of nonmetals BY-NC-SA 3.0, dihydrogen monoxide indicates that there are two hydrogens and one atom! 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