where is the most biodiversity found on earth

Many different reasons are in A highland area, this hotspot initially covered more than 461,000 square km across Mexico and southern U.S. Earth’s biodiversity is the very basis for our own survival. Although mountain regions cover only 25% of Earth’s land area, they are home to more than 85% of the world’s species of amphibians, birds, and mammals, and many of these are found only in mountains. Terrestrial biodiversity is thought to be up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity. Conserving the species residing there will have a colossal impact in protecting the global biodiversity. a) 3.5 billion . The 5 Major Threats for Biodiversity Loss. Mammal extinction rate was highest in country. But the number of howler monkeys in each rainforest differs and this describes their species richness in each rainforest. This park has 500 tree species and various species of wildlife. With this in mind, it should come as no surprise that viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth. a) China. — In the study, tropical flora was assessed across the continent. There are currently 36 recognized biodiversity hotspots. The uneven distribution means that certain regions boasts unbelievable numbers of endemic species. Changes in land-use and sea use Global biodiversity is the measure of biodiversity on planet Earth and is defined as the total variability of life forms. ... “I found it incredibly exciting as the first visible effects of major evolutionary events started to emerge,” Hoyal Cuthill says. Australia is 1st in the world for endemics. Some 90 other endemic bird species are currently threatened. b) Scotland. The rivers and lagoons found within the park are home to the spectacled caiman, American crocodile and bull sharks. Man-made development, pollution, and urbanization, they’re all contributing to an ever-growing effect on life. Without bees, many of our crops would vanish. Copyright © 1998 - 2021 SciTechDaily. All Rights Reserved. The Philippines hotspot is one of the richest regions in biodiversity, including more than 7,100 islands in the Pacific Ocean. Amazonia represents the quintessence of biodiversity – the richest ecosystem on earth. This will be the most comprehensive and ambitious biodiversity protection framework in history and aims to do for biodiversity protection what the Paris Agreement on Climate Change did for climate action. The Cerrado is the name of the greatest woodland savannah in South America. Biodiversity is the amazing variety of life on Earth. The research set out to find an answer by focusing on the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa, a non-tropical heartland of biodiversity with around ten times as many native plant species as the UK, squeezed into an area a little smaller than Belgium. Areas with extremely high levels of biodiversity are called hotspots. For example, howler monkeys can be found in the rainforests of Brazil, northern Argentina, and Bolivia. The level just broader is species diversity, which best fits the literal translation of biodiversity: the number of different species in a particular ecosystem or on Earth. The giant armadillo, giant anteater, and jaguar are amongst the mammals living in this biodiversity hotspot. They found that the region’s richness could be largely explained by the fact it had not experienced major changes in its climate over the past 140,000 years. The conservation of the world's biodiversity is thus utterly dependent on the way in which we interact with and use the world's forests. 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Coral reefs are the nurseries of the oceans, they are biodiversity hot spots. 1. But marine life accounts for only 15 percent of the world’s species. Ranging from a coin sized pnk rigned frog to a 4 meter long anaconda, the findings confirm the Amazon as one the most biodiverse places on Earth… Share: FULL STORY. But the most species aren’t described yet. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Today, the Cerrado covers less than 450,000 square km, down from more than 2 million square km. This biodiversity hotspot originally covered about 1.2 million square km. Ocean acidification may render most regions of the ocean inhospitable to coral reefs, affecting tourism, food security, shoreline protection, and biodiversity. Keep up with the latest scitech news via email or social media. The word biodiversity is a contraction of 'biological diversity'. However, a number of those species are at a risk of extinction due to man’s intervention for consumption or entertainment. Some argue that a uniform climate in regards to temperature is important for biodiversity. Previous scientific theories have suggested productivity – where large amounts of energy flow through an ecosystem – might explain biodiversity hotspots, but the researchers found this only played a minor role in the Cape Floristic Region’s thronging variety of life. Discover the most diverse countries in the world. Origin Of The Concept. Amazing discoveries: 1200 new species found in the Amazon. Biodiversity loss, also called loss of biodiversity, a decrease in biodiversity within a species, an ecosystem, a given geographic area, or Earth as a whole. Columbia Research Shows How Energy Could Be Extracted, Humans Face a “Ghastly Future” Unless Extraordinary Action Is Taken Soon on Sustainability, New Research Finds Colleges Can Prevent 96% of COVID-19 Infections Without Vaccines, Stunning Martian Panorama Celebrates NASA’s Curiosity Rover’s 3,000th Day on Mars, Pioneering Research Reveals How Teeth Functioned and Evolved in Giant Mega-Sharks, Upper Ocean Temperatures Hit Record High in 2020 – Poses “A Severe Risk to Human and Natural Systems”, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Species richness is the most common metric used in ecology. We can’t pay Biodiversity, but it does stimulate the economy and help us get a better understanding of that thing. It forms the web of life, of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend. Biodiversity loss, also called loss of biodiversity, a decrease in biodiversity within a species, an ecosystem, a given geographic area, or Earth as a whole. Habitat to 6,000 endemic plant species and numerous of bird species, the hotspot attracts eco-tourists who wish to see the Cebu flowerpecker and the Philippine eagle. We can conserve most of life on Earth by protecting the most exceptional ecosystems and habitats. Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Rhodes Drive, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa. Our planet’s biodiversity – the wide range of existence on Earth – is in the face of a historic crisis. Learn what you can do to play your part. Similarly, near major ecological boundaries, such as forest to grasslands or shrublands to semi-desert, climate change is likely to cause major, long-lasting loss of biological diversity.”. It is important as it promotes ecosystem productivity, as well as the sustainability of life in general. Biodiversity is the name we give to the variety of all life on Earth. Biodiversity hotspots are home to unique flora and fauna, most of which are endemic to the particular environment. Places … However, the word “Biodiversity” is relatively new, and is thought to have first been coined as a contraction of the term “biological diversity” in 1985 and then popularised by a number of authors1. Thank You. So what’s the reason behind this incredible biodiversity? c) 40 million. The forked watsonia. This type of diversity simply looks at an area and reports what can be found there. In general, diversity tends to decrease as one moves away from the equator and towards the poles. To understand this requires looking at the attributes that allow living organisms as well as viruses to thrive. Biodiversity is everywhere, but there are certain habitats and ecosystems around the world that contain a huge variety of plant and animal species found nowhere else on earth. While other planets are likely rich in minerals of high monetary value here on Earth, no other planet that we know of have the conditions necessary for human civilization. Likewise, insect species richness is immense in the Neotropics though the actual number of … They found biodiversity to be driven by temperature. Australia is an interesting case of mega-biodiversity as it is one of two developed countries in the list. All life on Earth hangs on biodiversity. The equator has rich biodiversity. In some environments, virus particles exceed cell numbers by one to two orders of magnitude. If provided, your email will not be published or shared. There are only 35 such regions, called biodiversity hotspots. Clearing the land for grazing and crops for animal feed is the main activity that destroys the region. Sadly, 1,435 have also been classified as threatened. To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, an area must meet two strict criteria: Contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants found nowhere else on Earth … Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, the product of four billion years of evolution. Nearly 4,000 endemic plant species exist here, but the hotspot is popular for the millions of colorful monarch butterflies migrating through the region each year. Most plants in a biodiversity hotspot are endemic, meaning they are not found anywhere else on Earth. Where would you expect to find more biodiversity? Tropical rainforests are found right around the equator. Our planet is a marvelous place to live on. Ecuador: Yasuni - the most biodiverse place on Earth? The 5 Major Threats for Biodiversity Loss. But what are these biodiversity hotspots and where are they? Co-author of the study, Dr. Colin Beale from the Department of Biology at the University of York, said: “Our research focussed on the incredible diversity of the Cape Floristic Region because the competing theories of stability versus productivity can’t be untangled in the tropics, where both are true. The grasslands biomes are considered to have more biodiversity, but only grasses, wildflowers, and a few trees have adapted to its strong winds, seasonal droughts, and annual fires. Endemic species—species that are only found in one particular location—are also found in hotspots. Even though forests and other fragmented habitats in hotspots represent just 2.3 percent of Earth’s land surface, they represent one of the most important part of the planet. Places with unique animals and plants. Biodiversity is the primary source of Earth’s biosphere – the life web that produces everything humans need most: food, water, many modern medicines, and air. They also boast almost 43 percent of endemic bird, reptile, mammal, and amphibian species. And as the places on Earth where the most biodiversity is under the most threat, hotspots are critical to human survival. This is life, this is biodiversity. This tremendous diversity is due to a few factors, some of which are still debated. “Our study shows that the environmental stability of south-western South Africa, in conjunction with the region’s rugged topography, explains diversity gradients in the region. The South American nation is the most biodiverse country on earth by area, and second overall behind the much larger Brazil. Between 1999 and 2009, 1200 species of plants and vertebrates were identified for the first time. “This rich resource enabled us to pull together an interdisciplinary team from South Africa and the UK to tackle one of the most challenging questions in ecology and highlights how important international collaborations are to the future success of South African research and the conservation of its biodiversity.”, Reference: “Plant richness, turnover, and evolutionary diversity track gradients of stability and ecological opportunity in a megadiversity center” by Jonathan F. Colville, Colin M. Beale, Félix Forest, Res Altwegg, Brian Huntley and Richard M. Cowling, 5 August 2020, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Tropical rain forests on land and coral reefs in marine systems are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth and have become the focus of popular attention. While the rate of loss varies across regions, WWF has identified five major threats that are linked to drops in species populations across all regions:. And due to the threat posed to the places on Earth where the most biodiversity exists, hotspots have become even more pivotal to human survival. The study found that conservation action does work: in the first analysis of its kind, researchers found that the global biodiversity decline would have … The Amazon rainforest is the most biologically diverse place on Earth. Email address is optional. Additionally, most of the species still found alive cannot grow enough to reproduce, "a clear sign that the biodiversity collapse will further continue," says Albano. High numbers of endemic species of birds, amphibians and mammals live here, including a whopping 17,000 plant species. found in a particular location and nowhere else; fully 25% of Hawaiian coral species are endemic to the area (Pacific Whale Foundation 2003). The term biodiversity (from “biological diversity”) refers to the variety of life on Earth at all its levels, from genes to ecosystems, and can encompass the evolutionary, ecological, and cultural processes that sustain life. The research suggests that biodiversity hotspots – such as the Daintree Rainforest in Australia and the Cloud Forests of Ecuador – are teeming with species because they have been ecologically stable for long periods of time, allowing evolution to forge ahead undisturbed. The loss and degradation of biodiversity negatively affects every level of the planet. These are Earth’s most biologically rich—yet threatened—terrestrial regions. 22.01.10. Senior author, Dr. Richard Cowling from Nelson Mandela University, added: “The extraordinary diversity of the Cape Floristic Region – as rich as the most diverse tropical forest regions – contradicts the long-held theory that high productivity is a requisite for high plant diversity. Humans share the planet with as many as 8.7 million different forms of life, according to what is being billed as the most accurate estimate yet of life on Earth. The hotspot provides habitat for 8,000 endemic plant species and around 950 birds. Thus, this energy is available for species to use and diversify. RELATED: [10 Eco Resorts That Set the New Earth-Friendly Standard]. Coincidentally, the hotspot map overlays extraordinarily on the map of the natural regions that benefit people the most. It upholds some 4,400 endemic plant species, as well as some of the most fascinating animal species. The findings were published in the Science Advances Journal and used an assessment process […] Even among the larger and more mobile species, such as terrestrial vertebrates, more than one third of all species have ranges of less than 1,000 square kilometers. It upholds some 4,400 endemic plant species, as well as some of the most fascinating animal species. Protecting forests is key to this - they cover almost a third of the global land area and harbour most of the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity. The forests suffered due to excessive logging, reducing them to a fifth of their original size. On some tropical coral reefs, for example, there can be 1,000 species per m². Ecosystems and species are the building blocks that sustain life on the planet, and we humans highly depend on them. Biodiversity, also called biological diversity, the variety of life found in a place on Earth or, often, the total variety of life on Earth. Covering more than 185,427 square km of mountains, alluvial meadows, alpine grasslands, and subtropical forests. All living things exist within their own communities, or ecosystems - oceans, forests, deserts, ice caps and even cities. All of these species were found only in Lake Victoria; therefore, the 500 species of cichlids were endemic. Conserving the species residing there will have a colossal impact in protecting the global biodiversity. The Mesoamerican forests – extending over Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvedor, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama – amass a stunning collection of sub-tropical and tropical ecosystems. Unfortunately, no less than 25 bird species became extinct in the past 200 years, due to invasive species and overhunting. The rate of extinction of species has never being higher – except for the legendary mass extinction of the dinosaurs. The diversity of plants and animals in Earth's arctic regions is moderate. Biodiversity hotspots make up about 2.3 percent of Earth’s land surface, but 44 percent of the world’s plants and 35 percent of land vertebrates live in these regions. The biodiversity we see today is the result of 4.5 billion years of evolution and, increasingly, of human influence as well. Q-30. Without plants, there would be no oxygen. Forests harbour most of Earth's terrestrial biodiversity. Recent analysis from The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) has concluded that the UK has fallen severely short on its UN biodiversity objectives that were put forth a decade ago at the Convention of Biological Diversity in Japan. Insects are found on land, in water and in air in nearly all habitats and all continents including Antarctica. The findings highlight the threat posed by climate change to some of the most extraordinary places on earth and the importance of giving nature the protection it needs to thrive, the authors of the study say. Situated in the Western Cape, this hotspot boasts the highest concentration of plant species per square kilometer in the world. At the equator. For the survival of humanity, we should learn to protect them. Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Rhodes Drive, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa. RELATED: [Coniferous Forest Biome – Why They Are Important]. It’s the yardstick by which we measure the health of our biodiversity. But the most species aren’t described yet. California Floristic Province- It lies in the region that extends from Santa Barbara in Southern California to the parallel 30th in Northern Baja California (about 220 miles from San Diego) 2. Human interference is also minimum at this place compared to the other places of Northern Hemisphere. As an ecosystem, the Amazon is one of the most biodiverse places on earth. Although they cover a small area - less than 2% of Earth's surface - rainforests are home to about half the life on Earth. Without the many species living out there, we wouldn’t have air to breathe, water to drink, or food to eat. Some researchers believe that viruses might just be the most successful of earth’s inhabitants. There would be no human society at all. For a region to qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, it must meet the two following criteria: Only 35 areas around the globe qualify as hotspots. These regions have been identified as some of the world’s most important ecosystems. Ecologists have long sought to understand why some areas of the planet are extraordinarily rich in species. Explanation: The equator has rich biodiversity. Of all the known species in the world, 10% are in the Amazon rainforest. Rare Star’s Giant Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 204015A Captured Close to Our Home Galaxy Earth gets blasted by mild short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) most days. c) Australia. Spread across Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, India and China, this biodiversity hotspot is home to 7,000 endemic plant species and numerous threatened endemic birds, mammals and amphibians. | Powered by WordPress, 10 Eco Resorts That Set the New Earth-Friendly Standard, #1: Atlantic Forest – Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, #9: Polynesia-Micronesia, Southern Pacific Ocean. Lead author, Dr. Jonathan Colville from the University of Cape Town said: “In South Africa we are fortunate to not only have incredible biodiversity, but also a uniquely detailed knowledge of where these plants are found, thanks to the collections at SANBI (South African Biodiversity Institute). These exist because species – both flora and fauna – do not live in the same densities around the planet. But…. Other benefits of biodiversity are even more fundamental. Some species are very rare and can be found in a particular ecosystem, these species are called_____ a) extinct ... How many years required for evolution of biodiversity on earth. The Cerrado is the name of the greatest woodland savannah in South America. Sarah Zhang July 12, 2017 The biodiversity hotspot concept first appeared in an article written by the scientist Norman Myers in 1988. However, the rainforest biome is the one with the highest species diversity. Biodiversity underpins all life on Earth. Latin America and Caribbean has seen the most loss, with a 94% drop in average species populations, while Africa comes in second with a 65% drop.. However, there are places that are severely threatened in spite of being some of the most biologically rich corners on Earth. It may sound drastic, but we wouldn’t have human societies without them. A haven of biodiversity, with more than 50,000 species of animals and plants. All this put together is biodiversity: the volume of life on Earth as well as how different species interact with each other and with the physical world around them. One of the most famous of these biodiversity hotspots is Madagascar, an island country with an extremely high rate of endemism (species unique to that location). Let’s start with biodiversity. 22.01.10. While the rate of loss varies across regions, WWF has identified five major threats that are linked to drops in species populations across all regions:. Proteas in Kirstenbosch Botanic Gardens with natural vegetation on Table Mountain behind. They host many endangered or vulnerable populations, all of them highly dependent on the environment to survive. 52 Chapter 3 … Credit: Richard Cowling, “The results suggest that climatic variation will not affect the biodiversity of all regions evenly. A thriving, diverse ecosystem provides many benefits to humans. Endangered means that the animal is nearly extinct. Mountain regions—especially those in the tropics—are hotspots of extraordinary and baffling biodiversity, according to new research. However, this assertion may be The Himalaya hotspot may just be the most widespread of them all, covering China, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Researchers have discovered why the tropics and a handful of other areas across the globe have become the most biodiverse places on the planet. The giant armadillo, giant anteater, and jaguar are amongst the mammals living in this biodiversity hotspot. There are more than 378 species of mammals, 828 species of birds, 300 different lizards, 140 species of snakes, etc. Originally boasting more than 1 million square km, the region has plummeted to just 226,000 square km in size. Because most coral reef species are more widely distributed than rain forest species, they may be less prone to extinction by the destruction of a single locality. On Earth there are many biomes, and all of them have biodiversity. More than 25 species in the forest are critically endangered. The impact of climate change may be greater on areas where stability has been the norm over extremely long time periods. Biodiversity: Biodiversity is the variety and differences among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. At the broadest most encompassing level, we have ecosystem diversity. Coral reefs are the nurseries of the oceans, they are biodiversity hot spots. On some tropical coral reefs, for example, there can be 1,000 species per m². “Exceptions often clarify the rule and our research shows that the environmental history of a place is important to its levels of biodiversity. A new study has indicated that 31.7% of tropical African flora species are at risk of going extinct, affecting those countries that rely on its biodiversity for tourism and fuel. It’s one of the longest hotspots, crawling in a narrow corridor throughout the eastern coast of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. However, due to coffee and sugar plantations, the forest was decimated to less than 0.1 million square km. Biodiversity 1. Biological diversity—or biodiversity—is the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. At the equator sufficient rain fall, temperature, etc., favour luxuriant growth of the biodiversity. 15 Most Endangered Species on Earth Our planet, Earth, hosts more than 30 million animal species. Forests contain 60,000 different tree species, 80 percent of amphibian species, 75 percent of bird species, and 68 percent of the world's mammal species. Areas where stability has been a puzzle for scientists since the days von... 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